This function returns an ndarray object containing evenly spaced values within a given range. The format of the function is as follows −

```
numpy.arange(start, stop, step, dtype)
```

Parameter | Description |
---|---|

start |
The start of an interval. If omitted, defaults to 0 |

stop |
The end of an interval (not including this number) |

step |
Spacing between values, default is 1 |

dtype |
Data type of resulting ndarray. If not given, data type of input is used |

In [1]:

```
import numpy as np
x = np.arange(5)
print (x)
```

In [2]:

```
import numpy as np
# dtype set
x = np.arange(5, dtype = float)
print (x)
```

In [3]:

```
# start and stop parameters set
import numpy as np
x = np.arange(10,20,2)
print (x)
```

This function is similar to arange() function. In this function, instead of step size, the number of evenly spaced values between the interval is specified. The usage of this function is as follows −

```
numpy.linspace(start, stop, num, endpoint, retstep, dtype)
```

Parameter | Description |
---|---|

start |
The starting value of the sequence |

stop |
The end value of the sequence, included in the sequence if endpoint set to true |

num |
The number of evenly spaced samples to be generated. Default is 50 |

endpoint |
True by default, hence the stop value is included in the sequence. If false, it is not included |

retstep |
If true, returns samples and step between the consecutive numbers |

dtype |
Data type of output ndarray |

In [4]:

```
import numpy as np
x = np.linspace(10,20,5)
print (x)
```

In [5]:

```
# endpoint set to false
import numpy as np
x = np.linspace(10,20, 5, endpoint = False)
print (x)
```

In [7]:

```
# find retstep value
import numpy as np
x = np.linspace(1,2,5, retstep = True)
print (x)
# retstep here is 0.25
```

This function returns an ndarray object that contains the numbers that are evenly spaced on a log scale. Start and stop endpoints of the scale are indices of the base, usually 10.

```
numpy.logspace(start, stop, num, endpoint, base, dtype)
```

**Following parameters determine the output of logspace function.**

Parameter | Description |
---|---|

start |
The starting point of the sequence is basestart |

stop |
The final value of sequence is basestop |

num |
The number of values between the range. Default is 50 |

endpoint |
If true, stop is the last value in the range |

base |
Base of log space, default is 10 |

dtype |
Data type of output array. If not given, it depends upon other input arguments |

In [8]:

```
import numpy as np
# default base is 10
a = np.logspace(1.0, 2.0, num = 10)
print (a)
```

In [9]:

```
# set base of log space to 2
import numpy as np
a = np.logspace(1,10,num = 10, base = 2)
print (a)
```

Dolly Solanki